Delhi. A seven-year-old boy who had suffered occasional toothache was found to have 526 teeth inside his jaw, according to surgeons in India, reports The Guardian.
The hundreds of teeth were found inside a sac that was nestled in the molar region of his lower jaw, following surgery carried out at the Saveetha dental college and hospital in Chennai.
“The teeth were of variable sizes that ranged from smallest at 0.1mm to largest 3mm. They had a small crown, enamel and a small root,” said Pratibha Ramani, the head of the department of oral and maxillofacial pathology at the hospital.
Doctors arrange tooth-like structures removed from the mouth of a 7-year-old boy inside a hospital in Chennai, India.
“We had to drill down into the top [of the lower jaw], make a window and remove the sac,” said Ramani. “As it [the sac] was going deeper into the tissue the size of the teeth was becoming very small.”
Despite the large number of teeth inside his mouth, the boy was not in too much pain, she said. “The only thing which was bothering him was that the tooth on that side had not erupted, it was empty, and [he had] occasional pain, and there was slight swelling that was increasing in size.”
The boy suffered from compound composite odontoma, a benign tumour. It is not known whether the condition was caused by genetic or environmental factors, she added.
The condition is very rare, though in 2014, doctors in Mumbai extracted 232 teeth from the mouth of a 17-year-old boy following a seven-hour operation.
A 7-year-old boy, whose tooth-like structures were removed from his mouth, sits inside a hospital in Chennai, India.
The surgery in Chennai lasted about two hours, but it took experts 10 days to analyse all of the teeth. They are hoping to study them further by carrying out genetic tests.
“We had to take a lot of counselling sessions with him for him to undergo surgery. We have very good counselling teams who have expertise in dealing with children,” said Ramani.
The boy, who now has 21 teeth, was discharged after three days and is doing well.
Source: The Guardian
Riyadh. Saudi Arabia has decided to allow adult women to travel without seeking approval from a so-called male "guardian", a flagship reform as the petro-state seeks to overhaul its ultra-conservative image
But a number of policies remain in place which leave male relatives in charge of major decisions affecting women's lives.
Here is where the Sunni Muslim kingdom stands on five key issues:
Saudi Arabia's so-called guardianship system places the legal and personal affairs of women in the hands of their fathers, brothers, husbands and even sons.
Women require the formal permission of their closest male relative to enrol in classes at home or to leave the country for classes abroad. It was unclear whether Thursday's reform would change that.
In July 2017, Saudi Arabia's education ministry announced girls' schools would begin to offer physical education classes for the first time, provided they conform with Islamic law.
The ministry did not specify whether girls would need permission from their guardians to take part.
Saudi Arabia has several women-only universities.
Restrictions the guardianship system has long imposed on women's employment have been loosened as Saudi Arabia tries to wean itself from its dependence on oil.
The reforms announced Thursday also cover employment regulations that are expected to further expand job opportunities for women.
Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman, named heir to the throne in June 2017, has promoted an economic plan known as "Vision 2030", which aims to boost the female quota in the workplace from 22 to 30 percent by 2030.
King Salman, his father, has signed decrees allowing women to apply online for their own business licences. The Saudi police force now also employs female officers.
On June 24 last year, women were allowed to drive cars for the first time in the kingdom's history.
While the end of the driving ban was largely welcomed, it did not signal an opening up of political freedoms.
Several women's rights activists, including veteran campaigners for the right to drive, were detained just weeks earlier and later put on trial on a host of charges including speaking to foreign journalists.
Under the guardianship system, women of all ages require the consent of their male guardian to get married.
A man may divorce his wife without her consent.
In January, the Saudi justice ministry said courts were required to notify women by text message that their marriages had been terminated, a measure apparently aimed at ending cases of men getting a divorce without informing their partners.
In January 2018, women were allowed into a special section in select sports stadiums for the first time. They had previously been banned from attending sporting events.
Saudi Arabia has also reined in its infamous morality police, which for decades had patrolled the streets on the lookout for women with uncovered hair or bright nail polish.
Some women in the capital, Riyadh, and other cities now appear in public without headscarves.
Tehran. Iran on Monday played down the threat of new US sanctions as Washington was expected to tighten punitive measures on Tehran in a standoff sparked by the US withdrawal from a nuclear deal.
Tensions have flared after Iranian forces shot down a US drone Thursday, the latest in a series of incidents including attacks on tankers in sensitive Gulf waters that have raised fears of an unintended slide towards conflict.
Both the US and Iran have repeatedly said they want to avoid going to war, but the spiralling tensions saw US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo travel Monday to meet with Saudi leaders to build a "global coalition" against the Islamic republic.
Tehran says the drone violated Iranian airspace and Foreign Minister Mohammad Javad Zarif has backed the claim with maps and coordinates -- allegations dismissed by Washington.
US President Donald Trump claimed he called off a planned retaliatory military strike on Iran at the last minute, tweeting that Washington would instead place "major additional sanctions on Iran on Monday".
"Are there really any sanctions left that the United States has not imposed on our country recently or in the past 40 years?" Iran's foreign ministry spokesman Abbas Mousavi said at a Monday press conference in Tehran.
"We really do not know what (the new sanctions) are and what they want to target anymore, and also do not consider them to have any impact," he added.
Last year, Trump unilaterally pulled the US out of a landmark 2015 deal meant to curb Iran's nuclear programme in exchange for sanctions relief.
The US has since imposed a robust slate of punitive sanctions on Tehran designed to choke off Iranian oil sales and cripple its economy -- which he now plans to expand.
Trump, who has waged a "maximum pressure" campaign against Iran, has also said the US is prepared to negotiate with the Islamic republic with "no preconditions".
"America's claim of readiness for unconditional negotiation is not acceptable with the continuation of threats and sanctions," Hesamodin Ashna, an advisor to Iran's President Hassan Rouhani, said Monday on Twitter.
"We consider war and sanctions to be two sides of the same coin," he added.
- 'Global coalition' -
Pompeo met Saudi King Salman and Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman in the Red Sea city of Jeddah and was later due to hold talks in the United Arab Emirates, US officials said.
Saudi and Emirati leaders both advocate a tough US approach against common foe Iran.
Pompeo described Saudi Arabia and the UAE as "two great allies in the challenge that Iran presents".
"We'll be talking with them about how to make sure that we are all strategically aligned and how we can build out a global coalition," Pompeo said.
He said the US sought a coalition "not only throughout the Gulf states but in Asia and in Europe that understands this challenge and that is prepared to push back against the world's largest state sponsor of terror".
But on Monday Russia, one of the world powers that negotiated the nuclear deal with Iran, denounced the planned new sanctions as "illegal".
- Cyber attack -
US media reports said Trump ordered a retaliatory cyber attack against Iranian missile control systems and a spy network after the drone was shot down.
On Monday Iranian Telecommunications Minister Mohammad Javad Azari Jahromi said no cyber attack against his country had ever succeeded.
"The media are asking about the veracity of the alleged cyber attack against Iran. No successful attack has been carried out by them, although they are making a lot of effort," he said on Twitter.
He acknowledged that Iran has "been facing cyber terrorism -- such as Stuxnet -- and unilateralism -- such as sanctions", naming a virus believed to have been engineered by Israel and the US to damage nuclear facilities in Iran.
With the US out of the deal, Iran has said it would reduce some of its nuclear commitments unless the remaining partners -- Britain, China, France, Germany and Russia -- help it circumvent US sanctions and sell its oil.
Thierry Coville, an Iran expert at the French Institute of International and Strategic Affairs (IRIS), also questioned whether there was room for further US action as previous sanctions have already severely hit Iranian crude exports.
"The Americans are asphyxiating Iran economically in order to force them to hold talks with them," Coville said.
"What more can be done? They will no doubt tighten secondary sanctions... and most probably extend a list of Iranian firms banned from trade."
London. People worldwide could be ingesting five grammes of microscopic plastic particles every week, equivalent in weight to a credit card, researchers said Wednesday.
Coming mostly from tap and especially bottled water, nearly invisible bits of polymer were also found in shellfish, beer and salt, scientists and the University of Newcastle in Australia reported.
The findings, drawn from 52 peer-reviewed studies, are the first to estimate the sheer weight of plastics consumed by individual humans: about 250 grammes, or half-a-pound, over the course of a year.
Another study calculated that the average American eats and drinks in about 45,000 plastics particles smaller than 130 microns annually, while breathing in roughly the same number.
"Not only are plastics polluting our oceans and waterways and killing marine life, it's in all of us," said Marco Lambertini, director general of WWF International, which commissioned the new report.
"If we don't want it in our bodies, we need to stop the millions of tons of plastic that continue leaking into Nature every year."
- Plastics industry set to grow -
In the last two decades, the world has produced as much plastic as during the rest of history, and the industry is set to grow by four percent a year until 2025, according to a new report by Grand View Research.
More than 75 percent of all plastics winds up as waste.
A third of that -- some 100 million tonnes -- is dumped or leaches into Nature, polluting land, rivers and the sea.
On current trends, the ocean will contain one metric tonne of plastic for every three metric tonnes of fish by 2025, according to The New Plastics Economy report, published by the Ellen MacArthur Foundation.
Plastic particles have recently been found inside fish in the deepest recesses of the ocean, and blanketing the most pristine snows in the Pyrenees mountains between France and Spain.
The authors of Wednesday's report were up front about the limitations of their research, starting with the fact that little is known about health consequences.
- 'Zero plastics' -
Gaps in data were filled with assumptions and extrapolations that could be challenged, though the estimates, they insisted, were on the conservative side.
They invited other researchers to build on their conclusions.
"Developing a method of transforming counts of microplastic particles into masses will help determine the potential toxicological risks for humans," said co-author Thava Palanisami, a microplastics expert at the University of Newcastle.
Some experts remain sceptical about longterm impacts.
"Based on the evidence that is currently available, I do not think that health effects of microplastics are a major concern," Alastair Grant, a professor of ecology at the University of East Anglia told AFP.
But that doesn't mean plastics isn't a major problem, he added.
"What we do need is political and economic actions to reduce the amounts of plastic being disposed of into the environment and encourage recycling."
Media and watchdog reports have recently uncovered numerous cases of plastic waste from rich countries destined for recycling in poorer ones being dumped or burned instead.
"This is likely to have much more serious health effects than a rather small number of plastic particles in food and water," Grant said.
The WWF said only hard targets backed by binding national commitments could hope to stem the plastics tide.
"The global goal must be to reduce plastic leakage into nature to zero," Eirik Lindebjerg, WWF's global plastics policy manager, told AFP.
"We need a new, legally binding agreement to combat marine plastic pollution -- it should be a stand-alone treaty like the Montreal Protocol or the Paris Agreement."
"Zero plastics" does not mean no plastics used..
But waste must be folded back into a circular economy, and plastics should no longer be made from fossil fuels, Lindebjerg added
Cairo. A bomb blast hit a tourist bus near Egypt's famed Giza pyramids on Sunday, wounding some of them, including South Africans, in the latest blow to the country's tourism industry.
The roadside bomb went off as the bus was being driven in Giza, also causing injuries to Egyptians in a nearby car, medical and security sources said.
Security and medical sources in Egypt said 17 people were injured, without giving a breakdown of their nationalities. No deaths were reported.
South Africa said in a statement that the "bus explosion" injured three of its 28 citizens who were part of the tourist group.
They would remain in hospital while the rest would return home on Monday, said the statement from the department of international relations.
"A device exploded and smashed the windows of a bus carrying 25 people from South Africa and a private car carrying four Egyptians," the security source said.
Video footage captured by AFP showed the bus and car with broken windows on the side of the road.
According to the security source, the wounded were being treated for scratches caused by the broken glass.
Sunday's incident comes after three Vietnamese holidaymakers and their Egyptian guide were killed when a roadside bomb hit their bus as it travelled near the Giza pyramids outside Cairo in December.
It also comes just little more than a month before the African Cup of Nations hosted by Egypt is to kick off.
Egypt has been battling an insurgency that surged especially in the turbulent North Sinai region following the 2013 military ouster of Islamist president Mohamed Morsi, who was replaced by former army general Abdel Fattah al-Sisi.
In February 2018, the army launched a nationwide operation against militants, focusing mainly on the North Sinai region.
- Tourism recovery -
Some 650 militants and around 45 soldiers have been killed since the start of the offensive, according to separate statements by the armed forces.
Since first being elected in 2014, Sisi has presented himself as a bulwark against terrorism, promising stability and increased security.
Recently, the country's vital tourism industry has started to slowly rebound after suffering strong blows due to deadly attacks targeting tourists following the turmoil of the 2011 uprising that toppled longtime ruler Hosni Mubarak.
Figures by the official statistics agency showed that tourist arrivals reached 8.3 million in 2017, compared with 5.3 million the previous year.
Authorities have gone at great lengths to lure tourists back, touting a series of archaeological finds and a new museum next to the pyramids, as well as enhanced security at airports and around ancient sites.
But that figure was still far short of the record influx of 2010 when more than 14 million visitors flocked to see the country's sites
Kiev. Ukraine's new President Volodymyr Zelensky used his inaugural speech Monday to call snap parliamentary polls after shooting to power in a country wracked by a separatist conflict and severe economic problems.
The 41-year-old comedian was sworn in as Ukraine's youngest post-Soviet president a month after scoring a landslide victory over Petro Poroshenko with a campaign capitalising on widespread public discontent with the political establishment.
Zelensky -- whose only previous political experience is appearing as president in a popular TV show -- announced his first priority was ending the five-year conflict with Moscow-backed separatists in the industrial east that has claimed over 13,000 lives.
"Our first task is a ceasefire in the Donbass," Zelensky said during the ceremony in parliament, referring to the eastern separatist-controlled region, prompting a round of applause.
"We didn't start this war but it is up to us to end it," he said.
"We are ready for dialogue," he added, urging the handover of Ukrainian prisoners.
- 'They are ours' -
He reiterated Ukraine does not recognise Russia's 2014 annexation of Crimea nor the separatists' self-proclaimed republics.
"Our next challenge is the return of the lost territories," he said.
Switching to Russian in an emotive speech, he stressed that Ukraine must regain the hearts and minds of Russian-speaking people living there, who "are not strangers, they are ours, Ukrainians".
Zelensky announced he would dissolve parliament in order to call early elections which had originally been scheduled for October.
"People must come to power who will serve the public," Zelensky said, after wrangling with hostile lawmakers whom he has called "petty crooks".
Zelensky's move could be seen as breaching Ukraine's complex legislation but is likely to go ahead, political analysts said.
"It will be easier for Zelensky to dissolve parliament than to keep his high rating," analyst Mykola Davydchuk said. "There are no mechanisms or instruments to stop this decision."
- High fives and selfies -
Zelensky also called for the sacking of the head of the state security service, prosecutor-general and defence minister loyal to his predecessor, although this has to be approved by parliament.
Defence Minister Stepan Poltorak and the head of the SBU security service Vasyl Grytsak tendered their resignations on Monday.
Zelensky took a non-traditional route to his inauguration -- walking from his nearby home, after saying he wanted a less pompous ceremony.
Dressed in a dark suit, he exchanged high fives with supporters waiting outside, took selfies with them and even jumped up to plant a kiss on a supporter's forehead.
In his speech, Zelensky referred to his background as a comedian. "In my life, I've tried to do all I could to make Ukrainians smile," he said.
"In the next five years I'll do all I can so that Ukrainians don't cry."
Uniquely for a first-time president, Zelensky has played the role before -- for laughs. He starred as a history teacher who was unexpectedly elected president in a television comedy series, "Servant of the People".
And his newly-formed party is named "Servant of the People".
When the actor and comedian announced his candidacy in December, few took it seriously, but after a campaign largely waged through social media, he won more than 73 percent in the second round on April 21 against Poroshenko.
Poroshenko led Ukraine for five years, overseeing the fallout over the Crimea annexation and the conflict in the east.
Although he launched some reforms, he was criticised for failing to improve living standards or effectively fight corruption.
Zelensky has vowed to continue the country's pro-Western course but critics may question how he will deal with the enormous challenges of the separatist conflict and ongoing economic problems.
The separatist authorities have indicated that they could be ready to negotiate with Zelensky.
Kremlin spokesman Dmitry Peskov on Monday said President Vladimir Putin has no plans to meet with Zelensky and would not be congratulating him on his inauguration.
The Russian president will only "congratulate him on the first successes" in resolving the separatist conflict, he said, calling it a "domestic problem" for Ukraine.
Kiev and its allies accuse Moscow of militarily supporting the separatists, which it denies.
But earlier this month, Putin this month ordered an easing of procedures for Ukrainians living in the separatist regions to gain Russian passports, a move that caused uproar in Kiev.